Category Archives: online resources

Using Collections – Virtually

I heard a remark the other day that struck a cord – or, churned my butter, a bit.

The gist of it was, “we should make digital facsimiles of our library materials (especially rare materials) and put them online, so they spark library use when people visit to see them in person, after becoming aware of them thanks to the digitized versions.”

Now, at Penn, we have digitized a couple of Japanese collections: Japanese Juvenile Fiction Collection (aka Tatsukawa Bunko series), Japanese Naval Collection (in-process, focused on Renshū Kantai training fleet materials), and a miscellaneous collection of Japanese rare books in general.* These materials have been used both in person (thanks to publicizing them, pre- and post-digitization, on library news sites, blogs, and social media as well as word-of-mouth), and also digitally by researchers who cannot travel to Penn. In fact, a graduate student in Australia used our juvenile fiction collection for part of his dissertation; another student in Wisconsin plans to use facsimiles of our naval materials once they’re complete; and faculty at University of Montana have used our digital facsimile of Meiji-period journal Hōbunkai-sui (or Hōbunkai-shi).

These researchers, due to distance and budget, will likely never be able to visit Penn in person to use the collections. On top of that, some items – like the juvenile fiction and lengthy government documents related to the Imperial Navy – don’t lend themselves to using in a reading room. These aren’t artifacts to look over one page at a time, but research materials that will be read extensively (rather than “intensively,” a distinction we book history folks make). Thus, this is the only use they can make of our materials.

The digitization of Japanese collections at Penn has invited use and a kind of library visit by virtue of being available for researchers worldwide, not just those who are at Penn (who could easily view them in person and don’t “need” a digital facsimile), or who can visit the library to “smell” the books (as the person I paraphrased put it). I think it’s more important to be able to read, research, and use these documents than to smell or witness the material artifact. Of course, there are cases in which one would want to do that, but by and large, our researchers care more about the content and visual aspects of the materials – things that can be captured and conveyed in digital images – rather than touching or handling them.

Isn’t this use, just as visiting the library in person use? Shouldn’t we be tracking visits to our digital collections, downloads, and qualitative stories about their use in research, just as we do a gate count and track circulation? I think so. As we think about the present and future of libraries, and people make comments about their not being needed because libraries are on our smartphones (like libraries of fake news, right?), we must make the argument for providing content both physically and virtually. Who do people think is providing the content for their digital libraries? Physical libraries, of course! Those collections exist in the real world and come from somewhere, with significant investments of money, time, and labor involved – and moreover, it is the skilled and knowledgable labor of professionals that is required.

On top of all of this, I feel it is most important to own up to what we can and cannot “control” online: our collections, by virtue of being able to be released at all, are largely in the public domain. Let’s not put CC licenses on them except for CC-0 (which is explicitly marking materials as public domain), pretending we can control the images when we have no legal right to (but users largely don’t know that). Let’s allow for free remixing and use without citing the digital library/archive it came from, without getting upset about posts on Tumblr. When you release public domain materials on the web (or through other services online), you are giving up your exclusive right to control the circumstances under which people use it – and as a cultural heritage institution, it is your role to perform this service for the world.

But not only should we provide this service, we should take credit for it: take credit for use, visits, and for people getting to do whatever they want with our collections. That is really meaningful and impactful use.

* Many thanks to Michael Williams for his great blog posts about our collections!

how to make Japanese udon/soba broth

After packing my copy of Japanese Cooking Contemporary and Traditional (an awesome vegan cookbook) a little hastily before my upcoming move, I scoured the Internet for the basic udon/soba noodle broth recipe. To my surprise, it is not on the Oracle. So here I’ll provide the standard Japanese recipe for soba/udon broth for posterity.

You need:

  • 4 cups any kind of broth (for example konbu-dashi, katsuo-dashi, or chicken, or fake-chicken as I used last night)
  • 2-5 tablespoons light (usu-kuchi) soy sauce as desired for saltiness
  • 1 tablespoon or so ryōri-shu (cooking sake, the cheap kind)
  • 1 teaspoon mirin or sugar if you don’t have mirin handy
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt

Simmer all this together for about 5 minutes and pour over the noodles. Adjust all the salty and sugary elements based on your taste. This makes enough for 2 servings.

You’re welcome, Internet!

academic death squad

Are you interested in joining a supportive academic community online? A place to share ideas, brainstorming, motivation and inspiration, and if you’re comfortable, your drafts and freewriting and blogging for critique? If so, Academic Death Squad may be for you.

This is a Google group that I believe can be accessed publicly (although I’ve had some issues with signing up with non-Gmail addresses) although you appear to have to be logged in to Google to view the group’s page. Just put in a request to join and I’ll approve you. Or, if that doesn’t work, email me at mdesjardin (at) gmail.com.

Link: [Academic Death Squad]

I’m trying to get as many disciplines and geographic/chronological areas involved as possible, so all are welcome. And I especially would love to have diversity in careers, mixing in tenure-track faculty, adjuncts, grad students, staff broadly interpreted, librarians, museum curators, and independent scholars – and any other career path you can think of. Many of us not in grad student or faculty land have very little institutional support for academic research, so let’s support each other virtually.

In fact, one member has already posted a publication-ready article draft for last-minute comments, so we even have a little activity already!

Best regards and best wishes for this group. Please email me or comment on this post if you have questions, concerns, or suggestions.

よろしくお願いいたします!

*footnote: The name came originally based on a group I ran called “Creative Death Squad” but the real origin is an amazing t-shirt I used to own in Pittsburgh that read “412 Vegan Death Squad” and had a picture of a skull with a carrot driven through it. I hope the name connotates badass-ness, serious commitment to our research, and some casual levity. Take it as you will.

#dayofDH Japanese digital resource research guides

Another “digital” thing I’ve been doing that relates to the “humanities” (but is it even remotely DH? I don’t know), is the creation of research guides for digital resources in Japanese studies of all kinds, with a focus on Japanese-language free websites and databases, and open-access publications.

So far, I’ve been working hard on creating guides for electronic Japanese studies resources, and mobile apps easily accessible in the US for both Android and iOS that relate to Japanese research or language study. The digital resources guide covers everything from general digital archives and citation indexes to literature, art, history, pop culture, and kuzushiji resources (for reading handwritten pre- and early modern documents). They range from text and image databases to dictionaries and even YouTube videos and online courseware for learning classical Japanese and how to read manuscripts.

This has been a real challenge, as you can imagine. Creating lists of stuff is one thing (and is one thing I’ve done for Japanese text analysis resources), but actually curating them and creating the equivalent of annotated bibliographies is quite another. It’s been a huge amount of research and writing – both in discovery of sources, and also in investigating and evaluating them, then describing them in plain terms to my community. I spent hours on end surfing the App and Play Stores and downloading/trying countless awful free apps – so you don’t have to!

It’s especially hard to find digital resources in ways other than word of mouth. I find that I end up linking to other librarians’ LibGuides (i.e. research guides) often because they’ve done such a fantastic job curating their own lists already. I wonder sometimes if we’re all just duplicating each other’s efforts! The NCC has a database of research guides, yes, but would it be better if we all collaboratively edited just one? Would it get overwhelming? Would there be serious disagreements about how to organize, whether to include paid resources (and which ones), and where to file things?

The answer to all these questions is probably yes, which creates problems. Logistically, we can’t have every Japanese librarian in the English-speaking world editing the same guide anyway. So it’s hard to say what the solution is – keep working in our silos? Specialize and tell our students and faculty to Google “LibGuide Japanese” + topic? (Which is what I’ve done in the past with art and art history.) Search the master NCC database? Some combination is probably the right path.

Until then, I will keep working on accumulating as many kuzushiji resources as I can for Penn’s reading group, and updating my mobile app guide if I ever find a decent まとめ!

#dayofDH Meiroku zasshi 明六雑誌 project

It’s come to my attention that Fukuzawa Yukichi’s (and others’) early Meiji (1868-1912) journal, Meiroku zasshi 明六雑誌, is available online not just as PDF (which I knew about) but also as a fully tagged XML corpus from NINJAL (and oh my god, it has lemmas). All right!

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I recently met up with Mark Ravina at Association for Asian Studies, who brought this to my attention, and we are doing a lot of brainstorming about what we can do with this as a proof-of-concept project, and then move on to other early Meiji documents. We have big ideas like training OCR to recognize the difference between the katakana and kanji 二, for example; Meiji documents generally break OCR for various reasons like this, because they’re so different from contemporary Japanese. It’s like asking Acrobat to handle a medieval manuscript, in some ways.

But to start, we want to run the contents of Meiroku zasshi through tools like MALLET and Voyant, just to see how they do with non-Western languages (don’t expect any problems, but we’ll see) and what we get out of it. I’d also be interested in going back to the Stanford Core NLP API and seeing what kind of linguistic analysis we can do there. (First, I have to think of a methodology.  :O)

In order to do this, we need whitespace-delimited text with words separated by spaces. I’ve written about this elsewhere, but to sum up, Japanese is not separated by spaces, so tools intended for Western languages think it’s all one big word. There are currently no easy ways I can find to do this splitting; I’m currently working on an application that both strips ruby from Aozora bunko texts AND splits words with a space, but it’s coming slowly. How to get this with Meiroku zasshi in a quick and dirty way that lets us just play with the data?

So today after work, I’m going to use Python’s eTree library for XML to take the contents of the word tags from the corpus and just spit them into a text file delimited by spaces. Quick and dirty! I’ve been meaning to do this for weeks, but since it’s a “day of DH,” I thought I’d use the opportunity to motivate myself. Then, we can play.

Exciting stuff, this corpus. Unfortunately most of NINJAL’s other amazing corpora are available only on CD-ROMs that work on old versions of Windows. Sigh. But I’ll work with what I’ve got.

So that’s your update from the world of Japanese text analysis.

Japanese tokenization – tools and trials

I’ve been looking (okay, not looking, wishing) for a Japanese tokenizer for a while now, and today I decided to sit down and do some research into what’s out there. It didn’t take long – things have improved recently.

I found two tools quickly: kuromoji Japanese morphological analyzer and the U-Tokenizer CJK Tokenizer API.

First off – so what is tokenization? Basically, it’s separating sentences by words, or documents by sentences, or any text by some unit, to be able to chunk that text into parts and analyze them (or do other things with them). When you tokenize a document by word, like a web page, you enable searching: this is how Google finds individual words in documents. You can also find keywords from a document this way, by writing an algorithm to choose the most meaningful nouns, for example. It’s also the first step in more involved linguistic analysis like part-of-speech tagging (thing, marking individual words as nouns, verbs, and so on) and lemmatizing (paring words down to their stems, such as removing plural markers and un-conjugating verbs).

This gives you a taste of why tokenization is so fundamental and important for text analysis. It’s what lets you break up an otherwise unintelligible (to the computer) string of characters into units that the computer can attempt to analyze. It can index them, search them, categorize them, group them, visualize them, and so on. Without this, you’re stuck with “words” that are entire sentences or documents, that the computer thinks are individual units based on the fact that they’re one long string of characters.

Usually, the way you tokenize is to break up “words” based on spaces (or sentences based on punctuation rules, etc., although that doesn’t always work). (I put “words” in quotes because you can really make any kind of unit you want, the computer doesn’t understand what words are, and in the end it doesn’t matter. I’m using “words” as an example here.) However, for languages like Japanese and Chinese (and to a lesser extent Korean) that don’t use spaces to delimit all words (for example, in Korean particles are attached to nouns with no space in between, like saying “athome” instead of “at home”), you run into problems quickly. How to break up texts into words when there’s no easy way to distinguish between them?

The question of tokenizing Japanese may be a linguistic debate. I don’t know enough about linguistics to begin to participate in it, if it is. But I’ll quickly say that you can break up Japanese based on linguistic rules and dictionary rules – understanding which character compounds are nouns, which verb conjugations go with which verb stems (as opposed to being particles in between words), then breaking up common particles into their own units. This appears to be how these tools are doing it. For my own purposes, I’m not as interested in linguistic patterns as I am in noun and verb usage (the meaning rather than the kind) so linguistic nitpicking won’t be my area anyway.

Moving on to the tools. I put them through the wringer: Higuchi Ichiyō’s Ame no yoru, the first two lines, from Aozora bunko.

One, kuromoji, is the tokenizer behind Solr and Lucene. It does a fairly good job, although with Ichiyō’s uncommon word usage and conjugation, it faltered and couldn’t figure out that 高やか is one word; rather it divided it into 高 や か.  It gives the base form, reading, and pronunciation, but nothing else. However, in the version that ships with Solr/Lucene, it lemmatizes. Would that ever make me happy. (That’s, again, reducing a word to its base form, making it easy to count all instances of both “people” and “person” for example, if you’re just after meaning.) I would kill for this feature to be integrated with the below tool.

The other, U-Tokenizer, did significantly better, but its major drawback is that it’s done in the form of an HTTP request, meaning that you can’t put in entire documents (well, maybe you could? how much can you pass in an HTTP request?). If it were downloadable code with an API, I would be very happy (kuromoji is downloadable and has a command line interface). U-Tokenizer figured out that 高やか is one word, and also provides a list of “keywords,” which as far as I can tell is a bunch of salient nouns. I used it for a very short piece of text, so I can’t comment on how many keywords it would come up with for an entire document. The documentation on this is sparse, and it’s not open source, so it’s impossible to know what it’s doing. Still, it’s a fantastic tool, and also seems to work decently for Chinese and Korean.

Each of these tools has its strengths, and both are quite usable for modern and contemporary Japanese. (I really was cruel to feed them Ichiyō.) However, there is a major trial involved in using them with freely-available corpora like Aozora bunko. Guess what? Preprocessing ruby.

Aozora texts contain ruby marked up within the documents. I have my issues with stripping out ruby from documents that heavily use them (like Meiji writers, for example) because they add so much meaning to the text, but let’s say for argument’s sake that we’re not interested in the ruby. Now, it’s time to cut it all out. If I were a regular expressions wizard (or even had basic competency with them) I could probably strip this out easily, but it’s still time consuming. Download text, strip out ruby and other metadata, save as plain text. (Aozora texts are XHTML, NOT “plain text” as they’re often touted to be.) Repeat. For topic modeling using a tool like MALLET, you’re going to want to have hundreds of documents at the end of it. For example, you might be downloading all Meiji novels from Aozora and dividing them into chunks or chapters. Even the complete works of Natsume Sōseki aren’t enough without cutting them down into chapters or even paragraphs to make enough documents to use a topic modeling tool effectively. Possibly, run all these through a part-of-speech tagger like KH Coder. This is going to take a significant amount of time.

Then again, preprocessing is an essential and extremely time-consuming part of almost any text analysis project. I went through a moderate amount of work just removing Project Gutenberg metadata and dividing into chapters a set of travel narratives that I downloaded in plain text, thankfully not in HTML or XML. It made for easy processing. With something that’s not already real plain text, with a lot of metadata, and with a lot of ruby, it’s going to take much more time and effort, which is more typical of a project like this. The digital humanities are a lot of manual labor, despite the glamorous image and the idea that computers can do a lot of manual labor for us. They are a little finicky with what they’ll accept. (Granted, I’ll be using a computer script to strip out the XHTML and ruby tags, but it’s going to take work for me to write it in the first place.)

In conclusion? Text analysis, despite exciting available tools, is still hard and time consuming. There is a lot of potential here, but I also see myself going through some trials to get to the fun part, the experimentation. Still, stay tuned, especially for some follow-up posts on these tools and KH Coder as I become more familiar with them. And, I promise to stop being difficult and giving them Ichiyō’s Meiji-style bungo.

buying a Japanese article – win!

I recently played around on CiNii Articles while doing some research for a student, specifically into whether there is a pay service that allows access to full text of subscription-based journal articles. It turns out there is, to my astonishment (because I always say “there is no JSTOR for Japanese journals”, which remains true), although it’s almost uniformly science and medicine journals. In the process of playing around, I ran across an article I desperately wanted to read, but was behind a paywall.

I noticed something on the journal site, however: a note that the article costs 630 yen for non-subscribers, with a link to purchase it. Within two minutes, I was registered as a member of the site with a credit card number and on my way to downloading the article as an unrestricted PDF.

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This process worked so well and so smoothly that I had to share my experience. Despite wishing, of course, that the article was open access (and that there was a way to restrict my CiNii searches not just to full-text but to open access full-text), I’m highly satisfied with how this worked out and especially with the fact that it’s a DRM-free PDF, so I’m free to save it, print, and put it on any number of devices.

Incidentally, for open access articles, CiNii is absolutely smooth and painless: direct links to PDFs from the “open access” button. Beautiful.

Lesson learned: next time you really, really need or want a Japanese article* and it’s a paid link on CiNii, give it a shot – you may be pleasantly surprised.

* Of course, this tends to not work for humanities journals, which are by and large not online at all, paid or not. This is why I still maintain that there is no Japanese JSTOR.

Meiroku zasshi (明六雑誌) now available online

The Meiji periodical founded and written by Fukuzawa Yukichi and others, Meiroku zasshi 明六雑誌, has now been put online in full text – or rather, page images. They’re available in both JPG and PDF format. This is a great resource for Meiji researchers, as it’s not exactly easy to get ahold of this 1874-1875 periodical otherwise. And let me tell you, these are high quality color images, highly readable, and you can even get a sense of the texture of the page. It’s a beautiful digitization and a valuable project.

You can access it at the 明六雑誌画像 website.

New issue of D-Lib magazine

D-Lib magazine has just published their most recent issue, available at http://www.dlib.org

This looks to be a great issue, with a number of fascinating articles on dissertations and theses in institutional repositories, using Wikipedia to increase awareness of digital collections, MOOCs, and automatic ordering of items based on reading lists.

Please check it out! All articles are available in full-text on the site.

NDL makes public the Historical Recordings Collection digital archive

On March 15, 2013, the National Diet Library made public their new digital archive of historical recordings. In partnership with a number of groups, including NHK, they have digitized and made available recordings from SPs from 1900 to the 1950s, in order to preserve them and prevent their becoming lost.

As time goes on, they plan to hold approximately 50,000 recordings in the archive. Although many recordings can be accessed via the Internet, some are only available to listen at the NDL itself due to copyright restrictions.

You can also access an NDL article on the digitization of recordings, entitled 音の歴史を残す (PDF link).

The archive is the Historical Recordings Collection, accessible at http://rekion.dl.ndl.go.jp/